Training means engaging in activity for fitness purposes or improving performance skills. Sports training is a process of preparation aimed at strengthening and maintaining high performance in sports activities. It is used by scientists and experts in sports science, biomechanics, exercise physiology, sports psychology, and fields like yoga and kinesiology. Regardless of fitness level, physical training, or exercise program, general sports training principles include:
Designed to improve fitness and performance, it includes strength training, conditioning, cardiovascular training, corrective and restorative exercises, mental and psychological training, and nutritional/health coaching.
Sports Training Principles
To improve fitness levels, an individual needs to increase the intensity and duration of their training routine gradually. Gradual and systematic increases in training stress maintain tissue overload and continue the body’s training adaptation. Training variables must be increased to induce further transformation. These include:
The rate of progression is important as progressing too fast can result in injury, while going too slow can delay improvement goals.
Periodization and Regularity
Maintaining a consistent exercise regimen is important, with training occurring at regular intervals.
- Training three-five times each week is recommended.
- Ensure adequate sleep to train at optimal levels.
- A proper nutrition plan to operate at high capacity during training.
- Varying training variables like activity, rest, frequency, intensity, and duration help maintain optimal stimulus and address goal adjustments to avoid overtraining, injury, and burnout.
Overloading occurs when the training exercise is more than an individual’s body can take. Challenging an individual’s current fitness and performance levels generates improvements. For example, soccer players alternate between sprinting, jogging, and backpedaling during games. They do 40-50-minute jogging sessions daily to maintain stamina and endurance.
- This means pushing the body, so the heart works at a high percentage of its maximum capacity.
- Determining the proper intensity level depends on various factors, including age, weight, and overall fitness level.
- Excessive overload and/or inadequate rest can result in overtraining, injury, and decreased performance levels.
Becoming bored with physical training can happen very easily when performing the same routine.
- Mixing things up by breaking up the routine and doing other activities is important.
- This prevents boredom and can increase motivation to help achieve maximum results.
Rest periods between physical training are essential for repairing muscle damage and removing metabolic waste.
- The recommended recovery time is between 24 and 48 hours after training.
- Alternating more difficult training exercises with easier exercises or alternating muscle groups so as not to work out the same muscles can also achieve recovery.
- Not allowing the body to recover properly can lead to muscle fatigue, increasing the risk of injuries.
When developing a physical training program, it’s important to ensure the whole body is being worked out equally to achieve a balanced fitness level.
- Balance routines for the upper and lower body.
- Components of a balanced exercise plan include Strength, Cardio, and Flexibility training.
- For example:
- One day of aerobic exercises for cardio.
- One day of rest.
- One day of resistance training for strength.
- Stretching at the beginning and the end of workouts to relax muscles and maintain flexibility.
The principle of specificity recommends that individuals gear their training toward specific goals.
- Specific training consists of exercises to develop specific strength, specific muscle groups, and specific motor abilities required for a sport.
- Incorporating specific motions and sports tasks generates neuromuscular and metabolic adaptations and muscle memory.
Sports chiropractors work closely with massage therapists, performance coaches, athletic trainers, and medical doctors with a diverse treatment approach that is applied based on the needs of the individual. Chiropractic will:
- Improve performance.
- Reduce the risk of injury.
- Alleviate muscle stress.
- Expedite injury healing.
- Maintain body alignment.
Sports Chiropractor Rehabilitation
Kasper, Korey. “Sports Training Principles.” Current sports medicine reports vol. 18,4 (2019): 95-96. doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000576
Maestroni, Luca, et al. “Strength and Power Training in Rehabilitation: Underpinning Principles and Practical Strategies to Return Athletes to High Performance.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 50,2 (2020): 239-252. doi:10.1007/s40279-019-01195-6
Ralston, Grant W et al. “Weekly Training Frequency Effects on Strength Gain: A Meta-Analysis.” Sports medicine – open vol. 4,1 36. 3 Aug. 2018, doi:10.1186/s40798-018-0149-9
Schleip, Robert, and Divo Gitta Müller. “Training principles for fascial connective tissues: scientific foundation and suggested practical applications.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies vol. 17,1 (2013): 103-15. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.06.007
Van Proeyen, Karen, et al. “Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state.” Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985) vol. 110,1 (2011): 236-45. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00907.2010
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