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Case Control Studies

PUSH as Rx Case-Control Studies. These studies compare patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls) and look back to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease.

Case-control studies are observational because no intervention is attempted, and no attempt is made to alter the course of the disease or condition. The goal is to determine the risk factor of interest exposure from each of the two groups of individuals retrospectively: These studies are designed to estimate odds.

These types of studies are also known as Retrospective Studies & Case Referent Studies.

1. Case-control studies work backward: They first identify diseased and non-diseased individuals and then ascertain the frequency of previous exposures.

2. Ideal characteristics for selected cases:

a. Select individuals who have an incident disease

b. Use a specific definition of the disease


  1. Can answer questions that could not be answered from other studies
  2. Good for studying rare conditions/diseases
  3. Less time is needed to conduct the study because the condition or disease is active.
  4. Simultaneously look at multiple risk factors.
  5. Useful as initial studies to establish an association


  1. Difficult to find a suitable control group
  2. Not good for evaluating diagnostic tests.
  3. Cases have the condition, and the Controls don’t.
  4. Retrospective studies have problems with data quality because of the reliance on memory.
  5. People with a condition are more motivated to recall risk factors.

General Disclaimer *

The information herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional. Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

Licensed in: Texas & New Mexico*